There is a range of psychological interventions for established schizophrenia. These include family interventions, motivational interventions for substance misuse and for non-adherence to medication, cognitive remediation for neurocognitive deficits and cognitive-behavioural therapy for symptoms. Psychological interventions may explicitly target risk factors for poor outcome, such as substance use, or protective factors, such as adherence to medication, or be directed at specific symptoms or deficits. There is emerging evidence for efficacy of psychological treatments during, following and even prior to the first episode. Important areas for further study are how different treatment modalities can interact productively, and patient and carer preferences for treatment. Many trials of psychological treatments have design flaws and this tends to overestimate the treatment effect.