Interactions between depression and lower urinary tract symptoms: The Role of Adverse Life Events and Inflammatory Mechanisms. Results From the European Male Ageing Study

Giovanni Castellini, Frederick Wu, Joseph Finn, Terence O'Neill, Michael E J Lean, Neil Pendleton, Giulia Rastrelli, Martin Rutter, Mauro Gacci, Valdo Ricca, Mario Maggi, EMAS Study Group

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: Depression and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) have been found to co-occur among aging men. The present study attempted to clarify the nature of this relationship, considering adverse life events as potential moderators and the inflammation as an underlying biological mechanism.

    METHODS: The relationship between depression and LUTS was evaluated using data from the European Male Ageing Study, the largest multicenter population-based study of aging in European men. The sample included 3369 men who were assessed by means of several self-reported questionnaires, including the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the International Prostate Symptom Score, and the Adverse Life Events Scale. Participants were asked to provide information regarding general health and life-style, and medical comorbidities. Biological measures including prostate-specific antigen, testosterone, and C-reactive protein were measured.

    RESULTS: LUTS and depressive symptoms were correlated (R = 0.32, β = .10, p < .001), even after adjusting for life-style, psychological, and medical variables. A history of adverse life events was associated with both higher LUTS and Beck Depression Inventory scores. Furthermore, adverse life events moderated the LUTS-depression association (F = 22.62, b = 0.061, p < .001), which increased as a function of the number of life events. C-reactive protein was found to mediate the LUTS-depression association. This mediation effect was moderated by number of adverse life events.

    CONCLUSIONS: Participants with a history of adverse life events represent a vulnerable population in whom the association between somatic and depressive symptoms is stronger. One of the biological mechanisms underlying this association could be an activation of the central inflammatory signaling pathways.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)758–769
    JournalPsychosomatic Medicine
    Volume78
    Issue number6
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 2016

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