Interleukin-1 and acute brain injury

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Inflammation is the key host-defense response to infection and injury, yet also a major contributor to a diverse range of diseases, both peripheral and central in origin. Brain injury as a result of stroke or trauma is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, yet there are no effective treatments, resulting in enormous social and economic costs. Increasing evidence, both preclinical and clinical, highlights inflammation as an important factor in stroke, both in determining outcome and as a contributor to risk. A number of inflammatory mediators have been proposed as key targets for intervention to reduce the burden of stroke, several reaching clinical trial, but as yet yielding no success. Many factors could explain these failures, including the lack of robust preclinical evidence and poorly designed clinical trials, in addition to the complex nature of the clinical condition. Lack of consideration in preclinical studies of associated co-morbidities prevalent in the clinical stroke population is now seen as an important omission in previous work. These co-morbidities (atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, infection) have a strong inflammatory component, supporting the need for greater understanding of how inflammation contributes to acute brain injury. Interleukin (IL)-1 is the prototypical pro-inflammatory cytokine, first identified many years ago as the endogenous pyrogen. Research over the last 20 years or so reveals that IL-1 is an important mediator of neuronal injury and blocking the actions of IL-1 is beneficial in a number of experimental models of brain damage. Mechanisms underlying the actions of IL-1 in brain injury remain unclear, though increasing evidence indicates the cerebrovasculature as a key target. Recent literature supporting this and other aspects of how IL-1 and systemic inflammation in general contribute to acute brain injury are discussed in this review.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFrontiers in cellular neuroscience
Volume9
Issue number18
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Feb 2015

Keywords

  • acute brain injury
  • cerebrovasculature
  • inflammation
  • interleukin-1

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Interleukin-1 and acute brain injury'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this