International Students in Open, Distance, and Digital Higher Education

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


International students are a group of rising prominence in open, distance, and digital higher education, although there is, at present, limited systematic data about their numbers worldwide. International students in open, distance, and digital education occupy an interesting “third space,” whereby they commonly remain within their home environment and surroundings while simultaneously studying from an institution-based abroad. This means that many of the lenses used to frame and categorize international students in face-to-face settings – mobility, visas, and citizenship – are found problematic in online distance settings. This chapter reflects on these issues to outline complexities in categorizing international students in open, distance, and digital higher education and the ways that their experiences may be distinct from international students who are geographically mobile. The chapter ends with a reflection on gaps in current research and suggestions for researchers who include international students in their work.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Open, Distance and Digital Education
EditorsOlaf Zawacki-Richter, Insung Jung
Place of PublicationSingapore
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)9789811903519
ISBN (Print)9789811903519
Publication statusPublished - 24 Aug 2022


  • International students
  • International distance students
  • Internationalization at a distance
  • International distance education


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