Introducing iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer®)development rationale and clinical experience

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Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often suffer from iron deficiency anaemia necessitating treatment with intravenous (IV) iron. Several studies demonstrate that oral iron is insufficient in these patients and that IV supplementation is a more effective treatment. Until now, use of available parenteral iron preparations has been limited by dosing schedules and the need, in some cases, for a test dose, and despite the availability of a range of different IV iron compounds, there is still a need for improved compounds. The new IV iron, iron isomaltoside 1000 Monofer®, is composed of iron and chemically modified isomalto-oligosaccharides which have a mean molecular weight of 1000 Da and consist predominantly of 35 glucose units. In contrast to dextrans, the carbohydrate isomaltoside 1000 is a linear and unbranched structure with theoretically a low immunological potential. Hence, a test dose is not necessary. Iron isomaltoside 1000 contains strongly bound iron within the ironisomaltoside formulation, which enables a controlled slow release of bioavailable iron to the iron-binding proteins, with potentially a reduced risk of free iron toxicity. This allows flexible dosing including high and rapid dosing securing convenient iron therapy for a wide range of patients. The development of Monofer® has been enthusiastically acknowledged by clinicians, and in 2009, there has been fast approval by European authorities via a decentralized registration procedure. This new IV iron is currently being marketed in several European countries.This article describes the development rationale and summarizes the clinical data assessing the use of iron isomaltoside 1000 administered without a test dose by either repeated bolus injections or fast high single iron infusions [defined as total dose infusion (TDI)] to patients suffering from CKD. Since CKD is associated with a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, data from a small trial applying high single doses of iron isomatoside 1000 in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are also reviewed. Collectively, the available data demonstrate adequate efficacy and a good safety profile of iron isomaltoside 1000 in CKD and CHF patients even when administered without a test dose and as single rapid high-dose infusions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)i10-i13
Number of pages4
JournalNDT Plus
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2011


  • anaemia
  • chronic kidney disease
  • iron deficiency
  • parenteral iron


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