Investigating the FOOT-STRUT distinction in Northern Englishes using crowdsourced data

Patrycja Strycharczuk, Georgina Brown, Adrian Leemann, David Britain

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

841 Downloads (Pure)


The FOOT and STRUT lexical sets did not undergo ahistorical split in the North of England, and thesevowels are said to remain a single phoneme forpresent day Northern English speakers. However,several sources report variation in this respect. Weanalyse this variation in production, using acousticanalysis of crowdsourced data from 141 speakers ofseven Northern English urban dialects. 36 speakersin our sample show a categorical distinction betweenFOOT and STRUT. Highly mobile speakers are morelikely to have this distinction, compared to speakers with low mobility. A categorical split is alsomore likely in speakers from Newcastle, comparedto several other cities. While we find no evidencethat FOOT and STRUT vowels are splitting in theNorth, we discuss how the observed variation maycontribute to the presence of marginal contrasts.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 19th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences
EditorsSasha Calhoun, Paola Escudero, Marija Tabain, Paul Warren
Place of PublicationCanberra, Australia
PublisherAustralasian Speech Science and Technology Association
Number of pages5
ISBN (Print)9780646800691
Publication statusPublished - 8 Aug 2019
EventInternational Congress of Phonetic Sciences - Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre, Melbourne, Australia
Duration: 5 Aug 20199 Aug 2019


ConferenceInternational Congress of Phonetic Sciences
Abbreviated titleICPhs 2019
Internet address


  • Northern English
  • FOOT-STRUT contrast
  • vowel split
  • crowdsourced data


Dive into the research topics of 'Investigating the FOOT-STRUT distinction in Northern Englishes using crowdsourced data'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this