PURPOSE: Congenital and acquired conditions of the lower urinary tract can lead to renal failure requiring transplantation. Under these circumstances transplantation into a urinary diversion or an augmented bladder may be the only option. We report our experience with renal transplantation into ileal conduits in the last 22 years.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 1980 and August 2002, 59 renal transplants were drained into an ileal conduit in 54 patients at our center, accounting for 2.3% of the total number of transplants during this period. Median patient age was 28 years (range 1 to 63) and 13 patients were children. There were 12 living related and 47 cadaveric kidneys transplanted. Spina bifida, the most common cause of end stage renal disease, was seen in 22 patients (41%). Patient and graft survival following transplantation into an ileal conduit were compared with that in the 2,579 other transplants done at this center between January 1980 and December 2001.
RESULTS: Actuarial graft survival was 90% at 1 year, 63% at 5 years, 52% at 10 years and 52% at 15 years. Actuarial patient survival was 95% at 1 year, 83% at 5 years, 69% at 10 years and 69% at 15 years. Graft and patient survival was statistically similar to the outcome of the 2,579 other transplants done at our center between January 1980 and December 2001. At a mean followup of 4.6 years (range 0.1 to 20) mean serum creatinine in the 39 functioning grafts was 156 mmol/l. Of the surgical complications 21% were directly attributable to the ileal conduit and it could be considered a risk factor contributing to the complication in a further 39%. Symptomatic urinary tract infection was noted in 65% of the patients, although it did not lead to graft loss. At followup 7 patients had died with a functioning graft. Grafts were lost due to chronic allograft nephropathy in 3 cases, renal artery stenosis in 2, renal vein thrombosis in 2, and acute severe rejection, staghorn calculus and ureteroileal stricture in 1 each.
CONCLUSIONS: Kidney transplant drainage into an ileal conduit for urinary diversion is an effective treatment for patients with end stage renal disease due to abnormal lower urinary tracts. Despite preexisting co-morbidity and the increased complication rate long-term graft and patient survival is comparable to that in the normal transplant population.
- Child, Preschool
- Follow-Up Studies
- Graft Survival
- Kidney Transplantation
- Middle Aged
- Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care)
- Postoperative Complications
- Survival Rate
- Urinary Diversion
- Evaluation Studies
- Journal Article