When boiling occurs in a liquid flow field, the phenomenon is known as forced-convection boiling. We numerically investigate such a boiling system on a cylinder in a flow at a saturated condition. To deal with the complicated liquid-vapor phase-change phenomenon, we develop a numerical scheme based on the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The collision stage is performed in the space of central moments (CMs) to enhance numerical stability for high Reynolds numbers. The adopted forcing scheme, consistent with the CMs-based LBM, leads to a concise yet robust algorithm. Furthermore, additional terms required to ensure thermodynamic consistency are derived in a CMs framework. The effectiveness of the present scheme is successfully tested against a series of boiling processes, including nucleation, growth, and departure of a vapor bubble for Reynolds numbers varying between 30 and 30000. Our CMs-based LBM can reproduce all the boiling regimes, i.e., nucleate boiling, transition boiling, and film boiling, without any artificial input such as initial vapor phase. We find that the typical boiling curve, also known as the Nukiyama curve, appears even though the focused system is not the pool boiling but the forced-convection system. Also, our simulations support experimental observations of intermittent direct solid-liquid contact even in the film boiling regime. Finally, we provide quantitative comparison with the semi-empirical correlations for the forced-convection film boiling on a cylinder on the Nu-Ja diagram.
|Physics of Fluids
|Accepted/In press - 12 Jan 2021