Leipzig Affective Norms for German: A reliability study

Philipp Kanske, Sonja A. Kotz

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    To facilitate investigations of verbal emotional processing, we introduce the Leipzig Affective Norms for German (LANG), a list of 1,000 German nouns that have been rated for emotional valence, arousal, and concreteness. A critical factor regarding the quality of normative word data is their reliability. We therefore acquired ratings from a sample that was tested twice, with an interval of 2 years, to calculate test-retest reliability. Furthermore, we recruited a second sample to test reliability across independent samples. The results show (1) the typical quadratic relation of valence and arousal, replicating previous data, (2) very high test-retest reliability (>.95), and (3) high correlations between the two samples (>.85). Because the range of ratings was also very high, we provide a comprehensive set of words with reliable affective norms, which makes it possible to select highly controlled subsamples varying in emotional status. The database is available as a supplement for this article at http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental. © 2010 The Psychonomic Society, Inc.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)987-991
    Number of pages4
    JournalBehavior Research Methods
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2010


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