Lithographic Processes for the Scalable Fabrication of Micro- and Nanostructures for Biochips and Biosensors

Silvia Fruncillo, Xiaodi Su, Hong Liu, Lu Shin Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Since the early 2000s, extensive research has been performed to address numerous challenges in biochip and biosensor fabrication in order to use them for various biomedical applications. These biochips and biosensor devices either integrate biological elements (e.g., DNA, proteins or cells) in the fabrication processes or experience post fabrication of biofunctionalization for different downstream applications, including sensing, diagnostics, drug screening, and therapy. Scalable lithographic techniques that are well established in the semiconductor industry are now being harnessed for large-scale production of such devices, with additional development to meet the demand of precise deposition of various biological elements on device substrates with retained biological activities and precisely specified topography. In this review, the lithographic methods that are capable of large-scale and mass fabrication of biochips and biosensors will be discussed. In particular, those allowing patterning of large areas from 10 cm2 to m2, maintaining cost effectiveness, high throughput (>100 cm2 h-1), high resolution (from micrometer down to nanometer scale), accuracy, and reproducibility. This review will compare various fabrication technologies and comment on their resolution limit and throughput, and how they can be related to the device performance, including sensitivity, detection limit, reproducibility, and robustness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2002–2024
Number of pages23
JournalACS Sensors
Issue number6
Early online date21 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jun 2021


  • DNA microarray
  • biochips
  • biosensors
  • electrochemical sensing
  • high resolution
  • high throughput
  • large-scale lithography
  • nanopore sensors
  • plasmonic
  • protein array

Research Beacons, Institutes and Platforms

  • Manchester Institute of Biotechnology


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