Lysyl Oxidase Activity Is Required for Ordered Collagen Fibrillogenesis by Tendon Cells.

Andreas Herchenhan, Franziska Uhlenbrock, Pernilla Eliasson, MaryAnn Weis, David Eyre, Karl E Kadler, S Peter Magnusson, Michael Kjaer

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    Lysyl oxidases (LOXs) are a family of copper-dependent oxido-deaminases that can modify the side chain of lysyl residues in collagen and elastin, thereby leading to the spontaneous formation of non-reducible aldehyde-derived interpolypeptide chain cross-links. The consequences of LOX inhibition in producing lathyrism are well documented, but the consequences on collagen fibril formation are less clear. Here we used β-aminoproprionitrile (BAPN) to inhibit LOX in tendon-like constructs (prepared from human tenocytes), which are an experimental model of cell-mediated collagen fibril formation. The improvement in structure and strength seen with time in control constructs was absent in constructs treated with BAPN. As expected, BAPN inhibited the formation of aldimine-derived cross-links in collagen, and the constructs were mechanically weak. However, an unexpected finding was that BAPN treatment led to structurally abnormal collagen fibrils with irregular profiles and widely dispersed diameters. Of special interest, the abnormal fibril profiles resembled those seen in some Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome phenotypes. Importantly, the total collagen content developed normally, and there was no difference in COL1A1 gene expression. Collagen type V, decorin, fibromodulin, and tenascin-X proteins were unaffected by the cross-link inhibition, suggesting that LOX regulates fibrillogenesis independently of these molecules. Collectively, the data show the importance of LOX for the mechanical development of early collagenous tissues and that LOX is essential for correct collagen fibril shape formation.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalThe Journal of biological chemistry
    Issue number26
    Publication statusPublished - 26 Jun 2015


    • Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
    • collagen
    • collagen cross-linking
    • electron microscopy (EM)
    • fibril
    • lysyl oxidase
    • tendon
    • tendon construct
    • β-aminoproprionitrile (BAPN)


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