We use a Nozzle reactor, for the rapid and simple synthesis of antiferromagnetic Co3O4 nanoparticles with tailored structural and magnetic properties based on continuous-flow hydrothermal method. XRD and TEM studies show that the as-synthesised nanoparticles possess cubic morphology, high degree of crystallinity and an average size of 7 nm. Furthermore, SQUID and electron spin resonance (ESR) studies reveal interesting magnetic properties for practical applications such as weak ferromagnetism, spin canting, exchange bias effect at low temperatures and superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. The Nozzle reactor has also been successfully increased from bench-scale (grams/hour) to commercial scale (tonnes/annum) production of nanomaterials with good reproducibility, demonstrating the feasibility of developing Co3O4 nanoparticles for commercial applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
- Cobalt oxide
- Hydrothermal synthesis