Managing dose-, damage- and data-rates in multi-frame spectrum-imaging

Lewys Jones, Aakash Varambhia, Richard Beanland, Demie Kepaptsoglou, Ian Griffiths, Akimitsu Ishizuka, Feridoon Azough, Robert Freer, Kazuo Ishizuka, David Cherns, Quentin M. Ramasse, Sergio Lozano-Perez, Peter D. Nellist

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As an instrument, the scanning transmission electron microscope is unique in being able to simultaneously explore both local structural and chemical variations in materials at the atomic scale. This is made possible as both types of data are acquired serially, originating simultaneously from sample interactions with a sharply focused electron probe. Unfortunately, such scanned data can be distorted by environmental factors, though recently fast-scanned multi-frame imaging approaches have been shown to mitigate these effects. Here, we demonstrate the same approach but optimized for spectroscopic data; we offer some perspectives on the new potential of multi-frame spectrum-imaging (MFSI) and show how dose-sharing approaches can reduce sample damage, improve crystallographic fidelity, increase data signal-to-noise, or maximize usable field of view. Further, we discuss the potential issue of excessive data-rates in MFSI, and demonstrate a file-compression approach to significantly reduce data storage and transmission burdens.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)i98-i113
Early online date11 Jan 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2018


  • Beam damage
  • Data compression
  • Dose-rate
  • Non-rigid registration
  • Spectrum imaging


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