Managing recurrent urinary tract infections in kidney transplant recipients using smartphone assisted urinalysis test

Chukwuma Chukwu, Anirudh Rao, Philip Kalra, Rachel Middleton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Urinary tract infection is the most frequent infectious complication in allograft recipients with poor outcomes. The study aimed to assess the effect of self-testing urine dipsticks at home, with the assistance of smartphone technology, on the occurrence of urinary tract infection (UTI)-associated complications and frequency and length of hospital admissions.

We performed a retrospective cohort study of kidney transplant recipients with a history of recurrent UTI who used a newly introduced smartphone-assisted dipsticks urinalysis test for self-monitoring. Participants self-administered the home urinalysis test with symptom onset. Antibiotics were prescribed if an infection was suspected, and home urinalysis was positive. The incidence of urinary infections, hospitalisations, and complications was evaluated before and during the home urinalysis period. Remote and face-to-face interactions with healthcare personnel were also assessed (cases acted as their controls).

Nineteen participants were included in the study. A total of 89.5% were females. Ninety home urinalysis tests were conducted over a mean period of 7 months. Sixty-one of these were pre-antibiotic. A total of 42.2% of all tests and 47.5% of the pre-antibiotic tests were positive. UTI-related hospitalisations were lower by 75% during the home urinalysis period; mean 1.26 (0.8–1.6) versus 0.32 (−0.01–0.6). The incidence of infection-related complications was also 65% lower; mean 1.52 (0.8–2.2) versus 0.52 (−0.2–1.2) during the same period. The number of face-to-face interactions was slightly lower; mean 1.9 (1.1–2.2) versus 1.7 (0.6–2.8), with more remote interactions; mean 6.0 (3.7–8.5) versus 10.4 (6.5–14.3), during smartphone urinalysis. Fifty per cent of antibiotic-treated UTI episodes had antibiotics within 24 h, rising to 82% within 48 h of a test.

Smartphone-assisted home urinalysis enabled remote management of UTI in a high-risk population. Outcomes point to a reduction in UTI complications and hospitalisations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-127
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Renal Care
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 17 Nov 2021


  • Pyelonephritis
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections,
  • Remote monitoring
  • Renal transplantation
  • Rrinary tract infections
  • Urinalysis


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