Matrix-graded and fibre-steered composites to tackle stress concentrations

David Stanier, Arjun Radhakrishnan, Ian Gent, Sree Shankhachur Roy, Ian Hamerton, Prasad Potluri, Fabrizio Scarpa, Milo Shaffer, Dmitry S. Ivanov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper studies the feasibility of improving structural performance of composites in the presence of stress concentrators. Matrix grading through local deposition of additive-enhanced matrices and fibre steering by varying fibrous architecture are examined independently and in combination on a glass-fibre triaxial braided composite subjected to open hole tensile test. Stiffened and toughened matrices were incorporated through precise point-wise injections of liquid reactive resin into dry preforms (Liquid Resin Printing). Fibre steering was implemented by varying the braiding angle along the length of the braided sleeve. It has been shown that these novel forms of architecture modification enable a significant improvement in composite strength through a variety of deformation mechanisms. This includes local stiffening of composite in the direct vicinity of the stress concentrator and damage accumulation away from the stress concentrators. The experimental observations are explained by using simple finite-element models.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-80
Number of pages9
JournalComposite Structures
Early online date18 Sept 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Damage tolerance
  • Graded materials
  • Liquid Resin Printing
  • Multi-matrix composites


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