Measurements and Modeling of Cloudwater Deposition to Moorland and Forests

Martin Gallagher, K. Beswick, T. W. Choularton, Hugh Coe, D. Fowler, K. Hargreaves

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    The objective of the study was to measure the size dependence of cloudwater deposition and associated average ionic fluxes to vegetated surfaces. Measurements were made over a forest canopy at Dunslair heights in south Scotland and a moorland site, Great Dun Fell, in northern England. Measurements were made using the gradient and eddy correlation techniques. Eddy correlation measurements were made using an ultrasonic anemometer, a Knollenberg forward scattering spectrometer probe (to measure liquid water fluxes and fluxes of droplets in 1-mu-m size intervals) and a GSI particulate volume monitor (to measure liquid-water fluxes). Measurements were made at Great Dun Fell of the size dependence of droplet deposition velocity, using the gradient technique with two Knollenberg probes. Simultaneous gradient and eddy correlation measurements were also made at Great Dun Fell of average cloud-water fluxes, together with chemical analysis of cloud water composition, using a continuous analysis system. At Dunslair Heights, eddy correlation measurements were made using both the Knollenberg and Gerber Scientific Instruments (GSI) probes, while simultaneous gradient measurements using two GSI probes were also attempted. Samples of cloud water were collected at Dunslair Heights, using passive string collectors for chemical analysis by ion chromatography. The major findings of the study were: 1. The droplet deposition velocities measured by the two techniques were similar. 2. The deposition velocities were a strong function of droplet size. Considerable resistance to deposition was evident for droplets of less than 5-mu-m radius. Deposition velocities for particles from about 6 to 8-mu-m exceeded those for momentum. 3. Except when the droplets were very small or the winds very light, bulk cloud-water deposition velocities were about 80% or more of the momentum deposition velocities to forests.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)97-107
    Number of pages11
    JournalEnvironmental Pollution
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 1992


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