Mechanical behaviour of prosthodontic CAD/CAM polymer composites aged in three food-simulating liquids

Rua Babaier, Julfikar Haider, Abdulrahman Alshabib, Nick Silikas, D.C. Watts

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Abstract

Objectives: This study investigated the effect of ageing in three food-simulating liquids (FSLs) on mechanical properties of three prosthodontic CAD/CAM polymer composites intended for construction of implant-supported frameworks. Methods: Materials investigated were: (i) a carbon fibre-reinforced composite (CarboCAD 3D dream frame; CC), (ii) a glass fibre-reinforced composite (TRINIA; TR), and (iii) a reinforced PEEK (DentoKeep; PK). Filler contents and microstructural arrangements were determined by thermo-gravimetry and tomography (µ-CT), respectively. Flexural properties (FS and E f) were measured by 3-point bending (3PB) of 1 mm and 2 mm thick beam specimens. Fracture toughness (K IC) was measured by single-edge-notched-bending (SENB). All measurements were made at baseline (dry) and after 1-day and 7-day storage at 37 ℃ in either water, 70 % ethanol/water (70 % E/W) or methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). Failed specimens were examined microscopically. Statistical analyses included four-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA and multiple Tukey comparison tests (α = 0.05). Multiple independent t-tests were performed regarding thickness effects on FS and E f (α = 0.05). Results: At baseline, the mechanical properties increased in the sequence: PK < TR < CC (p < 0.001). FS ranged from 192.9 to 501.5 MPa; E f from 4.2 to 18.1 GPa; and K IC from 4.9–12.4 MPa.m 0.5. Fibre-reinforced composites (CC and TR) were significantly stronger than PK. However, all properties of CC and TR reduced after 1 d storage in 70 % E/W and MEK with FS ranging from 58.6 to 408 MPa; E f from 1 to 15.4 GPa; K IC from 6.87 to 10.17 MPa.m 0.5. Greater reductions occurred after 7 d storage. MEK was more detrimental than 70 % E/W and water on fibre-reinforced composites. Significance: Mechanical properties of each CAD/CAM composite were strongly dependent upon media and ageing. Although the mechanical properties of PK were initially inferior, it was relatively stable in all FSLs. All three materials exhibited sufficient mechanical properties at 1 mm thickness, but thicker specimens were more tolerant to ageing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1492-1506
Number of pages15
JournalDental Materials
Volume38
Issue number9
Early online date22 Jul 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2022

Keywords

  • Ageing
  • CAD/CAM composite
  • Flexural strength
  • Food-simulating liquid
  • Fractographic analysis
  • Fracture toughness
  • Three-point bending

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