Methyl-β-cyclodextrin increases permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayers by displacing specific claudins from cholesterol rich domains associated with tight junctions

Daniel Lambert, Catherine A. O'Neill, Philip J. Padfield

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    In a previous study we demonstrated that depletion of Caco-2 cell cholesterol results in the loss of tight junction (TJ) integrity through the movement of claudins 3 and 4 and occludin, but not claudin 1, out of the TJs [1]. The aims of this study were to determine whether the major tight junction (TJ) proteins in Caco-2 cells are associated with cholesterol rich, membrane raft-like domains and if the loss of TJ integrity produced by the extraction of cholesterol reflects the dissolution of these domains resulting in the loss of TJ organisation. We have demonstrated that in Caco-2 cells claudins 1, 3, 4 and 7, JAM-A and occludin, are associated with cholesterol rich membrane domains that are insoluble in Lubrol WX. Co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that there is no apparent restriction on the combination of claudins present in the rafts and that interaction between the proteins is dependent on cholesterol. JAM-A was not co-immunoprecipitated with the other TJ proteins indicating that it is resident within in a distinct population of rafts and therefore is likely not directly associated with the claudins/occludin present in the TJ complexes. Depletion of Caco-2 cell cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin resulted in the displacement of claudins 3, 4 and 7, JAM-A and occludin, but not claudin 1, out of the cholesterol rich domains. Our data indicate that depletion of cholesterol does not result in the loss of the TJ-associated membrane rafts. However, the sterol is required to maintain the association of key proteins with the TJ associated membrane rafts and therefore the TJs. Furthermore, the data suggest that cholesterol may actually directly stabilise the multi-protein complexes that form the TJ strands. Copyright © 2007 S. Karger AG.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)495-506
    Number of pages11
    JournalCellular Physiology and Biochemistry
    Volume20
    Issue number5
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2007

    Keywords

    • Cholesterol
    • Claudin
    • Lubrol WX
    • Occludin
    • Tight junctions
    • Triton X100

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