Miniature Integrated 2.4 GHz Rectennas Using Novel Tunnel Diodes

Christopher Walsh, Saad G. Muttlak, M. Sadeghi, M. Missous

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This work presents the design, fabrication, and measured results of a fully integrated miniature rectenna using a novel tunnel diode known as the Asymmetrical Spacer Layer Tunnel (ASPAT). The term rectenna is an acronym for a rectifying antenna, a device with a rectifier and antenna coexisting as a single design. The ASPAT is the centrepiece of the rectifier used for its strong temperature independence, zero bias, and high dynamic range. The antenna is designed to be impedance matched with the rectifier, eliminating the need for a matching network and saving valuable real estate on the gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrate. The antenna is fully integrated with the rectifier on a single chip, thus enabling antenna miniaturization due to the high dielectric constant of GaAs and spiral design. This miniaturization enables the design to be fabricated economically on a GaAs substrate whilst being comparable in size to a 15-gauge needle, thus unlocking applications in medical implants. The design presented here has a total die size of 4 x 1.2 mm2, with a maximum measured output voltage of 0.97 V with a 20 dBm single tone 2.35 GHz signal transmitted 5 cm away from the rectenna.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jul 2023


  • Asymmetrical spacer layer tunnel (ASPAT) diode
  • biomedical implant devices
  • electrically-small antennas
  • impedance matching
  • planar antennas
  • rectennas
  • wireless power transfer


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