Background and Aims: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious infective complication that usually results in prolonged hospitalisation and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is sometimes difficult to promptly diagnose infective endocarditis when a patient receiving hemodialysis presents with signs and symptoms of bacteremia, a delay which can lead to worse outcomes. In this study, we aimed to identify the risk factors that can predict infective endocarditis in haemodialysis patients with bacteremia.
Method: This retrospective observational study was conducted on all patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis (IE) and receiving maintenance hemodialysis between 2005 and 2018 in Salford Royal Hospital and its satellite dialysis units (catchment population of 1.5 million). The IE patients were propensity score matched in a 1:2 ratio with similar hemodialysis patients without IE but with bacteraemia between 2011 and 2015. Propensity scores were generated by using binary logistic regression analysis incorporating age, gender, diabetes status, and dialysis vintage as variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict the risk factors associated with developing IE. Statistics were performed using SPSS version-24.
Results: We had a sample of 105 patients (35 IE vs 70 bacteremia). The median age of the patients was 65 years with a predominance of males (60%). 43% were diabetic, 11.5% were receiving immunosuppression and 72% had a catheter for dialysis access. IE patients had higher peak C-reactive protein (CRP) during admission compared to patients with bacteremia and no IE (253 mg/ml vs 152 mg/ml, p=0.001). Patients who developed IE had a longer duration of dialysis catheter use than the bacteremia group (150 vs 19 days; p<0.001) (table 1). There was no significant difference between causative microorganisms in both groups. Staphylococcus aureus caused most cases (54% in IE and 47% in bacteremia). Our study showed clearly that patients who had IE had longer hospital stay (45 vs 18 days, p=0.001) with a far higher 30-day mortality rate (54.3% vs 17.1%, p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed previous valvular heart diseases (OR: 20.1; p<0.001), a higher baseline CRP (OR:1.01; p=0.001), and a longer duration of catheter use (OR: 1.01; p=0.035) as significant predictors for infective endocarditis (table 2).
Conclusion: Bacteremia in patients receiving hemodialysis through a catheter as access should be actively investigated with a high index of suspicion for IE particularly those having valvular heart diseases and those with a longer duration of dialysis catheter usage. Work up may need to include invasive investigations such as transesophageal echocardiogram to confirm or reliably rule out this devastating condition.
|Journal||Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation|
|Publication status||Published - 29 May 2021|