Modelling artificial ground freezing subjected to high velocity seepage

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Artificial ground freezing (AGF) is a ground improvement technique for en- suring the safety of underground construction works in water-bearing soils. High velocity water transport in coarse-grain soils can prevent the ice wall formation in brine-based ground freezing methods. This can be overcome by using expendable refrigerants such as solid carbon dioxide and liquid nitro- gen, which provide much lower temperatures. Presented here is a model for analysis and design of ground freezing by expendable refrigerants under high velocity seepage conditions. Non-local mathematical formulations of heat transfer and water flow in soils are developed within the framework of the Peridynamics theory. Their computational implementation uses an adaptive multi-grid peridynamic approach to analyse large domains efficiently. The simulations are tested successfully against several benchmarks. The devel- oped model enables reliable analyses of the effects of main geological and technological parameters on the ice-wall delivery in the presence of ground- water flow.
Original languageEnglish
Article number125084
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
Early online date19 Dec 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2024


  • artificial ground freezing
  • liquid nitrogen
  • solid carbon dioxide
  • peridynamics
  • phase change
  • heat transfer
  • seepage

Research Beacons, Institutes and Platforms

  • Energy


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