Modelling the effects of delayed haptic and visual feedback in a collaborative virtual environment

Caroline Jay, Mashhuda Glencross, Roger Hubbold

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    Abstract

    Collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) enable two or more people, separated in the real world, to share the same virtual “space.” They can be used for many purposes, from teleconferencing to training people to perform assembly tasks. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of CVEs is compromised by one major problem: the delay that exists in the networks linking users together. Whilst we have a good understanding, especially in the visual modality, of how users are affected by delayed feedback from their own actions, little research has systematically examined how users are affected by delayed feedback from other people, particularly in environments that support haptic (force) feedback. The current study addresses this issue by quantifying how increasing levels of latency affect visual and haptic feedback in a collaborative target acquisition task. Our results demonstrate that haptic feedback in particular is very sensitive to low levels of delay. Whilst latency affects visual feedback from 50 ms, it impacts on haptic task performance 25 ms earlier, and causes the haptic measures of performance deterioration to rise far more steeply than visual. The “impact-perceive-adapt” model of user performance, which considers the interaction between performance measures, perception of latency, and the breakdown of perception of immediate causality, is proposed as an explanation for the observed pattern of performance.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number8
    JournalACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction
    Volume14
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2007

    Keywords

    • haptics

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