Modifying dietary patterns in cardiothoracic transplant patients to reduce cardiovascular risk: The AMEND-IT Trial

Timothy R Entwistle, Kyoko Miura, Brian G Keevil, Julie Morris, Nizar Yonan, Matthew Pohl, Adele C Green, James E Fildes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is common after cardiothoracic transplantation and causes substantial morbidity.

AIMS: To assess feasibility and potential effectiveness of dietary interventions to reduce CVD risk.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a pilot intervention, we recruited patients from a tertiary hospital and randomly allocated them to a Mediterranean or low-fat diet for 12 months. Feasibility was measured by patient participation, retention, and adherence. Changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), heart rate, blood pressure, glucose markers, and blood lipids were assessed using longitudinal generalized estimating equation regression models with 95% confidence intervals.

RESULTS: Of 56 heart and 60 lung transplant recipients, 52 (45%) consented, 41 were randomized, and 39 (95%) completed the study with good adherence to randomized diets. After 12 months, changes in many risk factors were seen in the Mediterranean and low-fat-diet groups, respectively, including mean BMI (-0.5 vs. 0.0 kg/m2 ), systolic/diastolic blood pressure +0.5/+0.1 vs -4.4/-3.5 mmHg; fasting glucose -0.26 vs -0.27 mmol/L; total cholesterol -0.56 vs -0.40 mmol/L. Changes in BMI and systolic/diastolic blood pressure in 49 eligible patients who did not take part were +0.7 kg/m2 and +2.5/+1.8 mmHg.

DISCUSSION: Dietary interventions in cardiothoracic transplant patients are feasible and potentially beneficial.

CONCLUSION: A definitive nutritional intervention study in these high-risk patients is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14186
JournalClinical Transplantation
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 25 Feb 2021


  • cardiothoracic transplantation
  • cardiovascular risk
  • feasibility
  • low-fat diet
  • mediterranean diet


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