Morphology, mechanisms and pathology of musculoskeletal ageing

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    In general terms, the recognized alterations in circulating humoral factors (hormones, cytokines, growth factors) that occur in ageing, coupled with innate cellular senescence exaggerated by the slow turnover of many connective tissue cell populations and the age-associated alterations in matrix molecule cross-linking, predispose the elderly to altered connective tissue biology. These changes can be profound, leading to poor mobility, altered ability to withstand cold, weakness and an increased risk of falls, fractures and age-associated 'degenerative' diseases, such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. As understanding of the causes of altered connective tissue function with age increases, it is becoming clearer that many of the predisposing factors (growth hormone, cytokines, load/life style) are potential targets for improving quality of life in the elderly. Copyright © 2007 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)252-259
    Number of pages7
    JournalJournal of Pathology
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2007


    • Ageing
    • Bone
    • Cartilage
    • Cell biology
    • Intervertebral disc
    • Ligament
    • Matrix
    • Musculoskeletal


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