Multi-layer Biosensor for Pre-symptomatic Detection of Puccinia strifformis, the Causal Agent of Yellow Rust

Mohamed Hassan, Abdalla Omar, Evangelos Daskalakis, Abubaker Abdillahi Mohamed, Lesley Boyd, Christopher F. Blanford, Bruce Grieve, Paulo Bartolo,

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The yellow rust of wheat (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) is a devastating fungal infection that is responsible for significant wheat yield losses. The main challenge with the detection of this disease is that it can only be visually detected on the leaf surface between 7 and 10 days after infection, and by this point, counter measures such as the use of fungicides are generally less effective. The hypothesis of this study is to develop and use a compact electrochemical-based biosensor for the early detection of P. striiformis, thus enabling fast countermeasures to be taken. The biosensor that was developed consists of three layers. The first layer mimics the wheat leaf surface morphology. The second layer consists of a sucrose/agar mixture that acts as a substrate and contains a wheat-derived terpene volatile organic compound that stimulates the germination and growth of the spores of the yellow rust pathogen P. s. f. sp. tritici. The third layer consists of a nonenzymatic glucose sensor that produces a signal once invertase is produced by P. striiformis, which comes into contact with the second layer, thereby converting sucrose to glucose. The results show the proof that this innovative biosensor can enable the detection of yellow rust spores in 72 h.
Original languageEnglish
Article number829
Pages (from-to)829
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 6 Oct 2022


  • 3D printing
  • Puccinia striiformis
  • bioinspired
  • biosensor
  • yellow rust


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