Nanoscale Insights into the Structure of Solution-processed Graphene by X-ray scattering

Zhengyu Yan, María J. G. Guimarey, Khaled Parvez, Chaochao Dun, Oliver Read, Thomas Forrest, Jeffrey J. Urban, Amor Abdelkader, Cinzia Casiraghi, Wajira Mirihanage

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Chemical exfoliation is an attractive approach for the synthesis of graphene due to low cost and simplicity. However, challenges still remain in the characterization of solution-processed graphene, in particular with atomic resolution. Through this work we demonstrate the X-ray pair distribution function as a novel approach to study the solution-processed graphene or other 2D materials with atomic resolution, directly in solution, produced by liquid-phase and electrochemical exfoliations. The results show the disappearance of long-range atomic correlations, in both cases, confirming the production of single and few-layer graphene. In addition, a considerable ring distortion has been observed as compared to graphite, irrespective of the solvent used: the normal surface angle to the sheet of the powder sample should be less than 6o, compatible with ripples formation observed in suspended graphene. We attribute this effect to the interaction of solvent molecules with the graphene nanosheets.
Original languageEnglish
Article number015006
Journal2D Materials
Early online date3 Nov 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 3 Nov 2022


  • Solution-processed graphene
  • X-ray Pair Distribution Function


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