New Massively Parallel Scheme for Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH) for Highly Nonlinear and Distorted Flow

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    A new massively parallel scheme is developed to simulate free-
    surface flows with the meshless method incompressible smoothed particle
    hydrodynamics (ISPH) for simulations involving more than 100 million
    particles. As a pressure-projection method, ISPH requires the solution
    of a sparse matrix for the pressure Poisson equation (PPE) which is non
    trivial for large problems where the particles are moving with
    continuously evolving connectivity. The new scheme uses a Hilbert space
    filling curve with a cell-linked list to map the entire domain so that
    domain decomposition and load balancing can be achieved easily to take
    advantage of geometric locality in order to reduce latency in memory
    cache access. The computational domain can be subdivided into more than
    12,000 partitions using the message passing interface (MPI) for
    communication between partitions. Load balancing is achieved using the
    open-source Zoltan library using a new particle weighting system. To
    solve the PPE for large problems using tens of thousands of partitions,
    the open-source PETSc library is used which requires the HYPRE BoomerAMG
    preconditioner to ensure rapid convergence for ISPH. The performance of
    the code is benchmarked on the U.K. National Supercomputer ARCHER. The
    results show that domain decomposition with a space filling curve can
    efficiently treat irregularly distributed particles creating a well-
    balanced scheme demonstrating that the approach is well matched to the
    highly irregular subdomains and non-uniform distribution of ISPH free-
    surface simulations. The benchmark results show that massively parallel
    ISPH code can achieve over 90% efficiency for the solution of the PPE,
    but the efficiency of computing matrix coefficients decreases when using
    more than 12000 partitions giving overall efficiencies in excess of
    43% up to 6144 MPI partitions, highlighting future improvements
    Original languageEnglish
    Number of pages33
    JournalComputer Physics Communications
    Early online date2 Jul 2018
    Publication statusPublished - 2018


    • Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics; Domain Decomposition; Dynamic Load Balancing; Space-filling Curve; Sparse Linear Solver; unstructured communication


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