Non-contact multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy system for industrial-scale bio-impedance measurement

Michael D O'Toole, Liam A Marsh, John L Davidson, Yee Mei Tan, David Armitage, Anthony Peyton

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    Biological tissues have a complex-impedance, or bio-impedance, profile which changes with respect to frequency. This is caused by dispersion mechanisms which govern how the electromagnetic field interacts with the tissue at the cellular and molecular level. Measuring the bio-impedance spectra of a biological sample can potentially provide insight into the sample's properties and its cellular structure. This has obvious applications in the medical, pharmaceutical and food-based industrial domains. However, measuring the bio-impedance spectra non-destructively and in a way which is practical at an industrial-scale presents substantial challenges. The low-conductivity of the sample requires a highly sensitive instrument, while the demands of industrial-scale operation require a fast high-throughput sensor of rugged design. In this paper, we describe a multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy (MIS) system suitable for industrial-scale, non-contact, spectroscopic bio-impedance measurement over a bandwidth of 156 kHz-2.5 MHz. The system sensitivity and performance are investigated using calibration and known reference samples. It is is shown to yield rapid and consistently sensitive results with good long-term stability. The system is then used to obtain conductivity spectra of a number biological test samples, including yeast suspensions of varying concentration and a range of agricultural produce, such as apples, pears, nectarines, kiwis, potatoes, oranges and tomatoes.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number035102
    JournalMeasurement Science and Technology
    Issue number035102
    Publication statusPublished - 3 Feb 2015


    • Electromagnetic fields
    • Electromagnetic induction
    • Fruits
    • Mobile security
    • Nondestructive examination
    • Solid solutions
    • Spectroscopy
    • Suspensions (fluids)
    • Tissue


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