Non-invasive Stenotic Renal Artery Haemodynamics by in silico Medicine

Aikaterini Mandaltsi, Andrii Grytsan, Aghogho Odudu, Jacek Kadziela, Paul D. Morris, Adam Witkowski, Timothy Ellam, Philip Kalra, Alberto Marzo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Measuring the extent to which renal artery stenosis (RAS) alters renal haemodynamics may permit precision medicine by physiologically guided revascularization. This currently requires invasive intra-arterial pressure measurement with associated risks and is rarely performed. The present proof-of-concept study investigates an in silico approach that uses computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling to non-invasively estimate renal artery haemodynamics from routine anatomical computed tomography (CT) imaging of RAS.

Methods: We evaluated 10 patients with RAS by CT angiography. Intra-arterial renal haemodynamics were invasively measured by a transducing catheter under resting and hyperaemic conditions, calculating the translesional ratio of distal to proximal pressure (Pd/Pa). The diagnostic and quantitative accuracy of the CFD-derived virtual Pd/Pa ratio (vPd/Pa) was evaluated against the invasively measured Pd/Pa ratio (mPd/Pa).

Results: Hyperaemic haemodynamics was infeasible and CT angiography in 4 patients had insufficient image resolution. Resting flow data is thus reported for 7 stenosed arteries from 6 patients (one patient had bilateral RAS). The comparison showed a mean difference of 0.015 (95% confidence intervals of ± 0.08), mean absolute error of 0.064, and a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.6, with diagnostic accuracy for a physiologically significant Pd/Pa of ≤ 0.9 at 86%.

Conclusion: We describe the first in silico estimation of renal artery haemodynamics from CT angiography in patients with RAS, showing it is feasible and diagnostically accurate. This provides a methodological framework for larger prospective studies to ultimately develop non-invasive precision medicine approaches for studies and interventions of RAS and resistant hypertension.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFrontiers in Physiology
Early online date17 Aug 2018
Publication statusPublished - 2018


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