Our studies in yeast show that there is an essential requirement for either an active thioredoxin or an active glutathione (GSH)-glutaredoxin system for cell viability. Glutathione reductase (Glr1) and thioredoxin reductase (Trr1) are key regulatory enzymes that determine the redox state of the GSH-glutaredoxin and thioredoxin systems, respectively. Here we show that Trr1 is required during normal cell growth, whereas there is no apparent requirement for Glr1. Analysis of the redox state of thioredoxins and glutaredoxins in glr1 and trr1 mutants reveals that thioredoxins are maintained independently of the glutathione system. In contrast, there is a strong correlation between the redox state of glutaredoxins and the oxidation state of the GSSG/2GSH redox couple. We suggest that independent redox regulation of thioredoxins enables cells to survive in conditions under which the GSH-glutaredoxin system is oxidized.