Non-Unique Machine Learning Mapping in Data-Driven Reynolds Averaged Turbulence Models

Anthony Man, Mohammad Jadidi, Amir Keshmiri, Hujun Yin, Yasser Mahmoudi Larimi

Research output: Working paperPreprint


Recent growing interest in using machine learning for turbulence modelling has led to many proposed data-driven turbulence models in the literature. However, most of these models have not been developed with overcoming non-unique mapping (NUM) in mind, which is a significant source of training and prediction error. Only NUM caused by one-dimensional channel flow data has been well studied in the literature, despite most data-driven models having been trained on two-dimensional flow data. The present work aims to be the first detailed investigation on NUM caused by two-dimensional flows. A method for quantifying NUM is proposed and demonstrated on data from a flow over periodic hills, and an impinging jet. The former is a wall-bounded separated flow, and the latter is a shear flow containing stagnation and recirculation. This work confirms that data from two-dimensional flows can cause NUM in data-driven turbulence models with the commonly used invariant inputs. This finding was verified with both cases, which contain different flow phenomena, hence showing that NUM is not limited to specific flow physics. Furthermore, the proposed method revealed that regions containing low strain and rotation or near pure shear cause the majority of NUM in both cases - approximately 76% and 89% in the flow over periodic hills and impinging jet, respectively. These results led to viscosity ratio being selected as a supplementary input variable (SIV), demonstrating that SIVs can reduce NUM caused by data from two-dimensional flows.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherCornell University
Publication statusSubmitted - 20 Dec 2023

Publication series

PublisherCornell University
ISSN (Print)2331-8422


  • Turbulence modelling
  • Machine learning
  • Reynolds stress
  • Non-unique mapping
  • Multi-value problem
  • Supplementary input variable
  • Tensor-basis neural networks


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