Novel Fluoride- and Chloride-containing Bioactive Glasses for Use in Air Abrasion

Xiaojing Chen, Minyuan Wang, Catherine Kenny, Xiaohui Chen, Natalia Karpukhina, Robert G. Hill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To investigate the degradation, fluorapatite formation, biological safety and cutting efficiency on dentine of the mixed fluoride- and chloride-containing bioactive glasses (BGs).
Methods: Two series of mixed fluoride- and chloride-containing glasses (GPFCl and GPF2.3Cl series) were synthesized using a melt-quench method. Glass transition temperature (Tg) and the bioactivity in term of glass degradation and fluorapatite formation were evaluated in Tris buffer solution. The cutting efficiency of the powdered BGs (GPF2.3Cl series) on dentine via air abrasion was investigated using white light profilometry and scanning electron microscope. The cytotoxicity of GPF2.3Cl series on human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPLSCs) and oral fibroblasts (OFB) were examined by MTT.
Results: These BGs are highly degradable and able to form fluorapatite within 3h of immersion. The formation of CaF2 was also found in the high fluoride-containing BGs. The faster glass degradation was evidenced in the BGs with higher chloride. A significant reduction of Tg from 790 °C to 463 °C was seen with increasing in calcium halide content. Air abrasion on dentine using the low and intermediate chloride-containing glasses demonstrates clear depressions, while no depression was found using the high chloride-containing glass. Moreover, the studied BGs showed no cytotoxicity to hPLSCs and OFB.
Conclusions: The glasses with mixed fluoride and chloride integrate the benefits from the presence of both, showing rapid glass degradation, fast fluorapatite formation, excellent biocompatibility and controllable hardness to provide a selective cutting efficiency on dentine.
Clinical Significance: The developed BGs air abrasive with tunable hardness by varying chloride content can selectively cut different dental tissues. In clinic, a relatively hard BG is of great interest for caries preparation, while a soft glass is attractive for tooth cleaning.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104252
JournalJournal of Dentistry
Publication statusPublished - 10 Aug 2022


  • Air abrasion
  • Bioactive glass
  • Caries preparation
  • Fluorapatite
  • Mixed fluoride and chloride
  • Tooth cleaning


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