Numerical Investigation of Multi-scale Characteristics of Single and Multi-layered Woven Structures

Hatim Alotaibi, Masoud Jabbari, Constantinos Soutis, Chamil Abeykoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Resin flow through multi-ply woven fabrics is affected by the fibre orientation and laminate stacking sequence during the impregnation process. This is characterised by permeability, which measures the ability of transferring fluids within a 2D or 3D layered woven fibre architecture (i.e., through a porous medium). The work aims to investigate the feasibility of characterising macro-scale flow permeability via the micro-meso-scale (dual-scale) permeability across and along woven yarns, with different structures of yarn nesting, non-shifting, and ply orientation. The permeability characterisation is performed using Ansys-Fluent software package where textile architectures and resin flow in porous media are simulated. The results show that in- and out-plane permeability of the nested, non-shifted and oriented single-ply woven preforms are different than that corresponding to multi-layered plates, making them only applicable for dual-scale permeabilities. However, with a number of plies in the multi-ply woven fabrics — e.g., 9-ply and 5-ply, for in- and out-of-plane flows, respectively — the dual-scale permeabilities can be extended to macro-flow making them applicable at all scales (multi-scale flow). The calculated in-plane multi-scale permeabilities are then used in the 2D simulations and compared with the analytical solution of the Darcy’s equation, which resulted in a very good agreement.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)405-421
Number of pages17
JournalApplied Composite Materials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jan 2022


  • Permeability
  • Dual-scale porous media
  • Multi-scale flow
  • Liquid composite moulding


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