O PIB das Industrias Culturais e Criativas no Brazil

Translated title of the contribution: The GDP of Creative and Cultural Industries in Brazil

Leandro Valiati, Gustavo Moler, Filipe Lang

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report


This commissioned research (by Itau Fundation - Itau Cultural Observatory) aims to calculate the Culture and Creative Industries (CCI) contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Brazil. As creative and cultural products earn consumer preference, the necessity of being innovative in the creation of tools and honing of existing ones to measure the CCI sector gains urgency. The sectoral GDP is a key indicator for the development of sectoral policies, and, depending on the sector's relevance, it can even be used to foster development at the national level. In this sense, it is important not to miss out on the windows of opportunity brought about by current consumer preferences and see the CCI sector as a driver of growth. Attempting to calculate the GDP of the CCI, especially for developing countries, meets significant divergences in methodologies. This is largely due to the lack of data and sectoral specificities, such as multiple job holding, gig economy, informality, job precariousness, intermittency, unpaid work, a.o. Thus, paying attention to the specificities of the sector becomes crucial to minimize estimation problems. To circumvent these issues, we claim the income perspective is more promising for the CCI than the traditional value added and expenditure perspectives. In the context of the CCI sector, we argue that the value added/expenditure methods – which, although use robust data – as opposed to the income perspective, tend to overestimate its GDP, since systems of national accounts (SNA) are prone to provide poor levels of disaggregation for cultural and creative industries. In order to materialize this empirical proposal, we use the creative intensity approach, which allows for a broader and more target specific sectoral definition. In terms of data, a combination of national surveys covering formal and informal labor markets, as well as firm level data were used. In addition to the aforementioned sources, novel data from the Brazilian culture promotion law, that includes more than 500 thousands observations on cultural projects expenditures, as well incomes from provision of services via digital platforms were used. By approaching a different calculation perspective and different data sources, in terms of what has already been done, this paper aims at contributing to a new way to measure the CCI in developing countries. Despite our innovative approach, there were still some data restrictions, mostly due to data granularity, which once surpassed could make the estimates more precise. For 2020, our estimates have pointed to a 3,11% CCI contribution to Brazilian GDP.
Translated title of the contributionThe GDP of Creative and Cultural Industries in Brazil
Original languagePortuguese
Number of pages20
Publication statusIn preparation - 2023


  • Creative Industries
  • Economic Impact
  • GDP


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