Optical effects of graphene addition on adhesives for orthodontic lingual retainers

Shiyao Liu, Ahmed El-Angbawi, Ruidong Ji, Vinicius Rosa, Nick Silikas

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The objective of this study was to determine the effects on the colour of adding increasing concentrations of graphene to orthodontic fixed retainer adhesives and to evaluate changes in optical transmission during light curing and the resultant degree of conversion. Two different types of adhesives commonly used for fixed retainers were investigated: A packable composite (Transbond) and a flowable composite (Transbond Supreme). Graphene was added to the adhesives in three different concentrations (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 wt%). Adhesives without graphene addition were set as control groups. A Minolta colourimeter was used to measure the colour and translucency parameters. Irradiance transmitted during curing was quantified using MARC Light Collector. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to record degree of conversion. Data were statistically analysed with the Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). The findings showed that incorporating graphene darkened the adhesive colour significantly and reduced translucency. As the graphene concentration reached 0.1 wt%, samples became opaque; yet, no adverse effect on degree of conversion was observed. The addition of graphene reduces optical transmission of lingual retainer adhesives; the effect increases with graphene concentration.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12966
JournalEuropean Journal of Oral Sciences
Issue number1
Early online date7 Dec 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2024


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