Type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasingly common in Thailand and elsewhere. In the present investigation, the bacteriological composition of saliva and supragingival plaque in Thai diabetics with and without active dental caries and in nondiabetics was determined by differential culture and eubacterial DNA profiling. Potential associations between fasting blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (biomarkers of current and historical glucose control, respectively) with decayed, missing, and filled teeth and with salivary Streptococcus and Lactobacillus counts were also investigated. The incidence of active dental caries was greater in the Thai diabetics than in nondiabetics, and the numbers of total streptococci and lactobacilli were significantly higher in supragingival plaque from diabetics than in nondiabetics. Lactobacillus counts in the saliva and supragingival plaque of diabetics with active caries were significantly higher than those in diabetics without active caries. Oral eubacterial DNA profiles of diabetic versus nondiabetic individuals and of diabetics with active caries versus those without active caries could not be readily differentiated through cluster analysis or multidimensional scaling. The elevated caries incidence in the Thai diabetics was positively associated with numbers of bacteria of the acidogenic/acid-tolerant genera Streptococcus and Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus bacterial numbers were further elevated in diabetics with active caries, although salivary eubacterial DNA profiles were not significantly altered.