Organisational and extra-organisational determinants of volume of service delivery by English community pharmacies: a cross-sectional survey and secondary data analysis

Robert Hann, Ellen Schafheutle, Fay Bradley, Rebecca Elvey, Andrew Wagner, Devina Halsall, Karen Hassell, Sally Jacobs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objectives This study aimed to identify the organisational and extra-organisational factors associated with 3 existing variation in the volume of services delivered by community pharmacies. Design and setting Linear and ordered logistic regression of linked national data from secondary sources – community 6pharmacy activity, socio-economic and health-need datasets – and primary data from a 7questionnaire survey of community pharmacies in nine diverse geographical areas in England. Outcome measures Annual dispensing volume; annual volume of medicines use reviews (MURs)Results National dataset (n=10,454 pharmacies): Greater dispensing volume was significantly associated with pharmacy ownership type (large chains>independents>supermarkets); greater deprivation; higher local prevalence of cardiovascular disease and depression, older people (>75) and infants (0-4) but lower prevalence of mental health conditions. Greater volume of MURs was significantly associated with pharmacy ownership type (large chains/supermarkets>>independents); greater dispensing volume; and lower disease prevalence.Survey dataset (n=285 pharmacies; response=34.6%): Greater dispensing volume was significantly associated with staffing; skill-mix; organisational culture; years open; and greater deprivation. Greater MUR volume was significantly associated with pharmacy ownership type (large chains/supermarkets>>independents); greater dispensing volume; weekly opening hours; and lower asthma prevalence.ConclusionsOrganisational and extra-organisational factors were found to impact differently on dispensing volume and MUR activity, the latter being driven more by corporate ownership than population need. Whilst levels of staffing and skill-mix were associated with dispensing volume, they did not influence MUR activity. Despite recent changes to the contractual framework, the existing fee-for-service reimbursement may therefore not be the most appropriate for the delivery of cognitive (rather than supply) services, still appearing to incentivise quantity over the quality (in terms of appropriate targeting) of services delivered. Future research should focus on the development of quality measures which could be incorporated into community pharmacy reimbursement mechanisms.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e017843
JournalBMJ Open
Volume7
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Oct 2017

Keywords

  • Community pharmacy
  • organisational productivity
  • medicines use reviews
  • surveys and 6 questionnaires
  • secondary data

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