Organizational philosophy as a new perspective on understanding the learning of professionalism.

Ellen I Schafheutle, Karen Hassell, Darren M Ashcroft, Stephen Harrison

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Objective. To define the concept of "organizational philosophy" through identification of elements within undergraduate pharmacy curricula in the United Kingdom that contribute to students' learning of professionalism. Methods. A qualitative study using curriculum mapping was conducted to identify "intended," "taught," and "received" curriculum in 3 schools of pharmacy. The study involved review of course materials, interviews with teaching staff members, focus groups with final year students, and observation of classes. Results. "Organizational philosophy" (totality of all contributors) played a vital part in students' professionalism learning. Key contributions were not restricted to the "taught" curriculum but extended to the wider academic environment. Setting of high standards appeared important; role models had particular significance. Importance of professionalism learning being grounded and longitudinal throughout the curriculum was highlighted. An "integrated" organizational philosophy appeared to be achieved where maximum overlap occurred between "intended," "taught," and "received" curricula. Conclusions. Professionalism learning goes beyond the "taught" curriculum in pharmacy schools. The concept of "organizational philosophy" acknowledges the importance of integration between "intended," "taught," and "received" curriculum in the context of overall organization.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalAmerican journal of pharmaceutical education
    Issue number10
    Publication statusPublished - 16 Dec 2013


    • curriculum mapping
    • hidden curriculum
    • organizational philosophy
    • professionalism
    • professionalism learning


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