P083 The Effect of Ketogenic Diet on Body Composition, Metabolism and Inflammatory Responses in Adult Patients with Cancer: A Systematic Review

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Abstract

Abstract
Background
A growing body of evidence indicates the importance of nutrition in cancer treatment. Ketogenic diets are one strategy that has been proposed to enhance traditional anticancer therapy. This review summarises the evidence concerning the effect of oral ketogenic diets on anthropometry, metabolism, quality of life (QoL) and tumour effects, at the same time as documenting adverse events and adherence in patients with cancer.

Methods
We searched electronic databases using medical subject headings (MeSH) and text words related to ketogenic diets and cancer. Adult patients following a ketogenic diet as a complementary therapy prior, alongside or after standard anticancer treatment for more than 7 days were included. Studies were assessed for quality using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tools (https://www.casp-uk.net).

Results
Eleven studies were included with 102 participants (age range 34–87 years) from early‐phase trials, cohort studies and case reports. Studies included participants with brain, rectal or mixed cancer sites at an early or advanced disease stage. The duration of intervention ranged from 2.4 to 134.7 weeks (0.5–31 months). Evidence was inconclusive for nutritional status and adverse events. Mixed results were observed for blood parameters, tumour effects and QoL. Adherence to diet was low (50 out of 102; 49%) and ranged from 23.5% to 100%.

Conclusions
High‐quality evidence on the effect of ketogenic diets on anthropometry, metabolism, QoL and tumour effects is currently lacking in oncology patients. Heterogeneity between studies and low adherence to diet affects the current evidence. There is an obvious gap in the evidence, highlighting the need for controlled trials to fully evaluate the intervention.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationClinical Nutrition ESPEN
PagesS191
Number of pages1
Volume37
Publication statusPublished - 3 Sep 2018

Keywords

  • body composition
  • humans
  • inflammation
  • ketogenic
  • diet
  • metabolism
  • cancer
  • neoplasm

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