Pesticide residue transfer in thai farmer families: using structural equation modeling to determine exposure pathways.

Hanhua Liu, Chalalai Hanchenlaksh, Andrew Povey, Frank De Vocht

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Use of pesticides in agriculture may lead to downstream
    exposure of farmers’ families to pesticide residues inadvertently taken home.
    Identification of the independent contribution of different exposure pathways
    from the farmer to their children can provide clear targets to reduce exposure
    of farmers’ children. Individual contributions of different pesticide transfer
    exposure pathways were investigated using structural equation modeling
    methods, and the benefits of these methods compared to standard multiple
    regression are described. A total of 72 Thai families, consisting of a farmer, a
    spouse, and a child, participated in this study. Family members completed a
    questionnaire and self-collected three spot morning urine samples in the
    spraying season. Urine samples were analyzed for diethyl phosphate, diethyl
    thiophosphate, diethyl dithiophosphate, dimethyl phosphate, dimethyl
    thiophosphate, and dimethyl dithiophosphate. A path model was developed
    based on an a priori hypothesized framework to examine the individual contributions of different exposure pathways that may
    directly or indirectly affect transfer of pesticide residues from farmers to their children. Transfer from the farmer to the child
    occurs indirectly, primarily through transfer to the spouse in the first instance, but also through contamination of the home
    environment. Clear targets for interventions are directly the reduction of farmers’ take-home exposures and indirectly frequent
    cleaning of the home to avoid buildup of pesticide residues.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)562-569
    Number of pages8
    JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015


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