Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and metabolism of triethylenetetramine in healthy human participants: An open-label trial

Jun Lu, Sally D. Poppitt, Tracey Sunderland, Asma A. Othman, Katya Ruggiero, Michael S. Willett, Lisa E. Diamond, Wilfredo D. Garcia, Benno G. Roesch, Garth Cooper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The selective CuII-chelator, triethylenetetramine (TETA), is undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of heart failure in patients with diabetes. Recently, the authors showed that 2 acetylated metabolites, N 1-acetyltriethylenetetramine (MAT) and N1,N 10-diacetyltriethylenetetramine (DAT), are formed in humans following oral TETA administration. Thus, it became necessary to determine whether the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 2 phenotype has any effects on the pharmacological properties and safety profile of TETA. Twelve fast and 12 slow NAT2-phenotype healthy participants were recruited. After oral drug administration, the authors collected plasma and urine samples, measured plasma concentrations of TETA and its 2 metabolites along with concomitant urinary copper concentrations, and performed safety tests. They present, for the first time, the complete 24-hour pharmacokinetic profiles of TETA, MAT, and DAT in humans. There was no evidence for clear-cut differences in pharmacokinetic profiles between fast and slow acetylators. Pharmacodynamic analysis showed no significant differences in cupruresis between the 2 NAT2 phenotypes. Safety results were consistent with TETA being well tolerated, and no significant differences in safety profiles were observed between the 2 phenotypes. Based on these data, NAT2 phenotype does not affect TETAĝ€™s pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, or safety profiles. TETA may be acetylated via an alternative mechanism, such as that catalyzed by spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltranferase. © 2010 The Author(s).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)647-658
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical Pharmacology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2010


  • Acetylation
  • Metabolism
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Triethylenetetramine


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