Photoemission core level binding energies from multiple sized nanoparticles on the same support: TiO2(110)/Au

Andrew Mellor, Axel Wilson, Chi L. Pang, Chi M. Yim, Francesco Maccherozzi, Sarnjeet S. Dhesi, Christopher A. Muryn, Hicham Idriss, Geoff Thornton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A novel method of measuring the core level binding energies of multiple sized nanoparticles on the same substrate is demonstrated using the early stage of Au nanoparticle growth on reduced r-TiO2(110). This method employed in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and microfocused X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. An STM tip-shadowing method was used to synthesize patterned areas of Au nanoparticles on the substrate with different coverages and sizes. Patterns were identified and imaged using a UV photoelectron emission microscope. The Au 4f core level binding energies of the nanoparticles were investigated as a function of Au nanoparticle coverage and size. A combination of initial and final state effects modifies the binding energies of the Au 4f core levels as the nanoparticle size changes. When single Au atoms and Au3 clusters are present, the Au 4f7/2 binding energy, 84.42 eV, is similar to that observed at a high coverage (1.8 monolayer equivalent), resulting from a cancellation of initial and final state effects. As the coverage is increased, there is a decrease in binding energy, which then increases at a higher coverage to 84.39 eV. These results are consistent with a Volmer-Weber nucleation-growth model of Au nanoparticles at oxygen vacancies, resulting in electron transfer to the nanoparticles.

Original languageEnglish
Article number024709
JournalJournal of Chemical Physics
Volume152
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jan 2020

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