Planck intermediate results. XVII. Emission of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium from the far-infrared to microwave frequencies

Planck Collaboration, A Abergel, P A R Ade, N Aghanim, M I R Alves, G Aniano, M Arnaud, M Ashdown, J Aumont, C Baccigalupi, A J Banday, R B Barreiro, J G Bartlett, E Battaner, K Benabed, A Benoit-LÈvy, J-P Bernard, M Bersanelli, P Bielewicz, J BobinA Bonaldi, J R Bond, F R Bouchet, F Boulanger, C Burigana, J-F Cardoso, A Catalano, A Chamballu, H C Chiang, P R Christensen, D L Clements, S Colombi, L P L Colombo, F Couchot, B P Crill, F Cuttaia, L Danese, R J Davis, P de Bernardis, A de Rosa, G de Zotti, J Delabrouille, F-X DÈsert, C Dickinson, J M Diego, H Dole, S Donzelli, O DorÈ, M Douspis, X Dupac, G Efstathiou, T A Enfllin, H K Eriksen, E Falgarone, F Finelli, O Forni, M Frailis, E Franceschi, S Galeotta, K Ganga, T Ghosh, M Giard, Y Giraud-HÈraud, J Gonz·lez-Nuevo, K M GÛrski, A Gregorio, A Gruppuso, V Guillet, F K Hansen, D Harrison, G Helou, S Henrot-VersillÈ, C Hern·ndez-Monteagudo, D Herranz, S R Hildebrandt, E Hivon, M Hobson, W A Holmes, A Hornstrup, W Hovest, K M Huffenberger, A H Jaffe, T R Jaffe, G Joncas, A Jones, W C Jones, M Juvela, P Kalberla, E Keih‰nen, J Kerp, R Keskitalo, T S Kisner, R Kneissl, J Knoche, M Kunz, H Kurki-Suonio, G Lagache, A L‰hteenm‰ki, J-M Lamarre, A Lasenby, C R Lawrence, R Leonardi, F Levrier, M Liguori, P B Lilje, M Linden-V¯rnle, M LÛpez-Caniego, P M Lubin, J F MacÌas-PÈrez, B Maffei, D Maino, N Mandolesi, M Maris, D J Marshall, P G Martin, E MartÌnez-Gonz·lez, S Masi, M Massardi, S Matarrese, P Mazzotta, A Melchiorri, L Mendes, A Mennella, M Migliaccio, S Mitra, M-A Miville-DeschÍnes, A Moneti, L Montier, G Morgante, D Mortlock, D Munshi, J A Murphy, P Naselsky, F Nati, P Natoli, F Noviello, D Novikov, I Novikov, C A Oxborrow, L Pagano, F Pajot, D Paoletti, F Pasian, O Perdereau, L Perotto, F Perrotta, F Piacentini, M Piat, E Pierpaoli, D Pietrobon, S Plaszczynski, E Pointecouteau, G Polenta, N Ponthieu, L Popa, G W Pratt, S Prunet, J-L Puget, J P Rachen, W T Reach, R Rebolo, M Reinecke, M Remazeilles, C Renault, S Ricciardi, T Riller, I Ristorcelli, G Rocha, C Rosset, G Roudier, B Rusholme, M Sandri, G Savini, L D Spencer, J-L Starck, F Sureau, D Sutton, A-S Suur-Uski, J-F Sygnet, J A Tauber, L Terenzi, L Toffolatti, M Tomasi, M Tristram, M Tucci, G Umana, L Valenziano, J Valiviita, B Van Tent, L Verstraete, P Vielva, F Villa, L A Wade, B D Wandelt, B Winkel, D Yvon, A Zacchei, A Zonca, T A Enßlin, J González-Nuevo, K M Górski, C Hernández-Monteagudo, E Keihänen, A Lähteenmäki, M Linden-Vørnle, M López-Caniego, E Martínez-González, M-A Miville-Deschênes, A Benoit-L??vy, F-X D??sert, O Dor??, T A En??lin, Y Giraud-H??raud, J Gonz??lez-Nuevo, K M G??rski, S Henrot-Versill??, C Hern??ndez-Monteagudo, E Keih??nen, A L??hteenm??ki, M Linden-V??rnle, M L??pez-Caniego, J F Mac??as-P??rez, E Mart??nez-Gonz??lez, M-A Miville-Desch??nes

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    Abstract

    The dust-Hi correlation is used to characterize the emission properties of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) from far infrared wavelengths to microwave frequencies. The field of this investigation encompasses the part of the southern sky best suited to study the cosmic infrared and microwave backgrounds. We cross-correlate sky maps from Planck, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and the diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE), at 17 frequencies from 23 to 3000 GHz, with the Parkes survey of the 21 cm line emission of neutral atomic hydrogen, over a contiguous area of 7500 deg2 centred on the southern Galactic pole. We present a general methodology to study the dust-Hi correlation over the sky, including simulations to quantify uncertainties. Our analysis yields four specific results. (1) We map the temperature, submillimetre emissivity, and opacity of the dust per H-atom. The dust temperature is observed to be anti-correlated with the dust emissivity and opacity. We interpret this result as evidence of dust evolution within the diffuse ISM. The mean dust opacity is measured to be (7.1 ± 0.6) ◊ 10-27 cm2 H-1 ◊ (nu/ 353 GHz)1.53 ± 0.03 for 100 mm of dust emission at millimetre wavelengths (defined here as nu mm = 1.51 ± 0.13. We compare it with the far infrared spectral index betaFIR derived from greybody fits at higher frequencies, and find a systematic difference, betamm - betaFIR = - 0.15, which suggests that the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) flattens at nu http://www.aanda.org
    Original languageEnglish
    Article numberA55
    JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
    Volume566
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014

    Keywords

    • dust
    • extinction
    • submillimeter: ISM
    • local insterstellar matter
    • infrared: diffuse background
    • cosmic background radiation

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