Porosity/bubble formation mechanism in laser surface enamelling

R. Akhter, L. Li, R. E. Edwards, A. W. Gale

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    The grouts between commercial tiles applied to walls and floors can be contaminated over time and normally have to be removed by manual or mechanical processes. To overcome the contamination problem, a specially developed tile grout was used to fill the voids between the tiles. The base filler was overlaid with an enamel surface that glazes after laser irradiation. One problem discovered in this work is that bubbles and porosities were formed after laser treatment. The use of water glass (sodium silicate) as a binder has been undertaken in this study. This paper investigates the mechanism of bubble formation and its effects on the enamel surface. It has been found that the CO2 gas released during the reaction causes bubble formation. The results and the technique for the removal of bubbles/porosities are presented in the paper. © 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)447-452
    Number of pages5
    JournalApplied Surface Science
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2003


    • Bubble
    • Ceramic
    • Diode
    • Enamel
    • Glaze
    • Grout
    • Laser
    • Porosity
    • Sodium silicate
    • Tile


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