Positive Feedback Loops in Alzheimer’s Disease – The Alzheimer’s Feedback Hypothesis

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    The dominant model for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the amyloid cascade hypothesis, in which the accumulation of excess amyloid- (A) leads to inflammation, excess glutamate and intracellular calcium, oxidative stress, tau hyperphosphorylation and tangle formation, neuronal loss, and ultimately dementia. In a cascade, AD proceeds in a unidirectional fashion, with events only affecting downstream processes. Compelling evidence now exists for the presence of positive feedback loops in AD, however, involving oxidative stress, inflammation, glutamate, calcium and tau. The pathological state of AD is thus a system of positive feedback loops, leading to amplification of the initial perturbation, rather than a linear cascade. Drugs may therefore be effective by targeting numerous points within the loops, rather than concentrating on upstream processes. Anti-inflammatories and anti-oxidants may be especially valuable, since these processes are involved in many loops and hence would affect numerous processes in AD.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)25-36
    Number of pages11
    JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
    Issue number1
    Early online date16 Oct 2018
    Publication statusPublished - 2018


    • systems biology
    • amyloid
    • peptide
    • drug discovery
    • directed acyclic graph
    • amyloid precursor protein
    • aggregation

    Research Beacons, Institutes and Platforms

    • Manchester Institute of Biotechnology


    Dive into the research topics of 'Positive Feedback Loops in Alzheimer’s Disease – The Alzheimer’s Feedback Hypothesis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this