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Praxis concerns the ability of subaltern groups facing oppression to positively transform their world through social action. In essence, it entails a conscious collaborative struggle through action and reflection to overcome oppressive power relations. Praxis is philosophically rooted in the writings of Aristotle and Marx, with other influential proponents including Antonio Gramsci and Paulo Freire. Within geography, it is commonly associated with theoretical positions actively engaged with emancipatory agendas. Feminist geographies, in particular from the 1970s, provided inspiration for the praxis of other subaltern groups. Today, praxis is characterized by a constellation of forms and techniques within and beyond the academy, ranging from teaching and writing to engaging in policy processes, involvement with grassroots community groups, campaigns, and civil disobedience. While academic praxis is challenged by significant structural factors, many scholars seek to effect progressive change on social, economic, and environmental issues in mutual solidarity with others.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Encyclopedia of Geography
Subtitle of host publicationPeople, the Earth, Environment and Technology
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons Ltd
ISBN (Electronic)9781118786352
ISBN (Print)9780470659632
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2021


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