Sounds generated by one's own action elicit attenuated brain responses compared to brain responses to identical sounds that are externally-generated. The present study tested whether the suppression effect indexed by the N1- and P2-components of the event-related potential (ERP) is larger when self-generated sounds are correctly predicted than when they are not. Furthermore, sounds violating a prediction lead to a particular prediction error signal (i.e., N2b, P3a). Thus, we tested whether these error signals increase for self-generated sounds (i.e., enhanced N2b, P3a). We compared ERPs elicited by self- and externally-generated sounds that were of frequent standard and of infrequent deviant pitch. The results confirmed an N1- and P2-suppression effect elicited by self-generated standard sounds. The N1-suppression was smaller in response to self-initiated deviant sounds, indicating the specificity of predictions for self-generated sounds. In addition, an enhancement of N2b and P3a for self-generated deviants revealed the saliency of prediction error signals. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
- Forward model
- Prediction error
- Self-generated and externally-generated sounds