Prevalence and predictors of Aspergillus seropositivity and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in an urban tertiary hospital in Sierra Leone: A cross-sectional study

Sulaiman Lakoh, Joseph B Kamara, Emma Orefuwa, Daniel Sesay, Darlinda F Jiba, Olukemi Adekanmbi, Gibrilla F Deen, James B W Russell, Abubakarr Bailor Bah, Maxwell Joseph Kargbo, Emmanuel Firima, George A Yendewa, David W Denning

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In the World Health Organization Global Tuberculosis (TB) Report 2022, 37% of pulmonary TB patients were clinically diagnosed and thus many people were treated for TB without evidence of the disease. Probably the most common TB misdiagnosis is chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of Aspergillus seropositivity and CPA in patients with chronic respiratory symptoms in an urban tertiary hospital in Sierra Leone.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a cross-sectional study design to recruit adults (≥18 years) from the Chest Clinic of Connaught Hospital, Freetown between November 2021 and July 2022. Aspergillus antibody was detected using LDBio Aspergillus IgM/IgG. Logistic regression was performed to assess the independent predictors of Aspergillus seropositivity and CPA. Of the 197 patients with chronic respiratory symptoms, 147 (74.6%) were male. Mean age was 47.1 ± 16.4 years. More than half (104, 52.8%) had been diagnosed with TB in the past, while 53 (26.9%) were on TB treatment at the time of recruitment. Fifty-two (26.4%) patients were HIV positive, 41 (20.8%) were seropositive for Aspergillus and 23 (11.6%) had CPA, 2 (3.8%) with current TB and 18 (17.3%) with past TB. Common radiologic abnormalities reported were localized fibrotic changes 62 (31.5%), consolidation 54 (27.4%), infiltrates 46 (23.4%), hilar adenopathy 40 (20.3%) and pleural effusion 35 (17.85) and thickening 23 (11.7%). Common symptoms were weight loss 144 (73.1%), cough 135 (68.5%), fever 117 (59.4%) and dyspnea 90 (45.7%). Current or past TB infection {aOR 3.52, 95% CI (1.46, 8.97); p = 0.005} was an independent predictor of Aspergillus seropositivity and CPA.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We report a high prevalence of Aspergillus antibody seropositivity and CPA, underscoring the need to integrate the prevention and management of pulmonary fungal infections with TB services and asthma care in order to reduce unnecessary morbidity and mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e0011284
JournalPLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Volume17
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Female
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Tertiary Care Centers
  • Prevalence
  • Sierra Leone/epidemiology
  • Chronic Disease
  • Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis
  • Aspergillus
  • Tuberculosis/diagnosis
  • Immunoglobulin G

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Prevalence and predictors of Aspergillus seropositivity and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in an urban tertiary hospital in Sierra Leone: A cross-sectional study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this