Promoting Country Image and Tourism in New or Underdeveloped Markets

José I. Rojas-Méndez, Gary Davies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, the theoretical framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM) was applied in the context of a host country promoting its tourism to new or underdeveloped markets. The host country’s perceived Warmth, Competence and Status were each relevant to an understanding of the attitude toward the country itself and as a tourism destination. However, in both instances, the influence of perceived Status was found to be direct and not, as existing SCM theory suggests, via Competence. The findings support Status being a primary dimension of human perception alongside Warmth and Competence within SCM theory. Warmth evaluations also dominated the prediction of Tourism Attitude but not Country Attitude, again contrary to established thinking. The influence on Tourism Attitude of both Uncertainty Avoidance and Individualism/Collectivism were moderated by the perceived Warmth and Status of the host country. Thus, the SCM requires adaptation to the context of tourism in underdeveloped markets.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Travel Research
Early online date31 Mar 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 31 Mar 2023


  • competence and status
  • developing markets
  • individualism/collectivism
  • nation brand
  • stereotype content model
  • uncertainty avoidance
  • warmth


Dive into the research topics of 'Promoting Country Image and Tourism in New or Underdeveloped Markets'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this