OBJECTIVE: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation failure remains a significant problem with reported early failure rates around 50%. Suboptimal hemodynamics, variable surgical skills, and technique dependency are widely believed to contribute to AVF nonmaturation. The Optiflow (Bioconnect Systems, Ambler, Pa) is a novel anastomotic device placed in situ that has potential for improving hemodynamics and standardizing AVF placement. We report results from a prospective nonrandomized controlled pilot study designed to investigate the safety and performance of the Optiflow. METHODS: Forty-one participants underwent AVF formation using either a 3-mm or 4-mm Optiflow and 39 matched control participants underwent AVF formation using the standard technique at two sites. Patients were observed for 90 days after AVF placement. The primary end point was unassisted maturation, which was defined as an outflow vein with a diameter ≥5 mm and blood flow ≥500 mL/min measured by Doppler ultrasound. The secondary performance end point was unassisted patency, and the primary safety end point was freedom from device-related serious adverse events. RESULTS: Unassisted maturation rates at 14, 42, and 90 days were 76%, 72%, and 68%, respectively, for the Optiflow group and 67%, 68%, and 76%, respectively, in the control group (P = .38, .69, and .47 at 14, 42, and 90 days). There was a trend to earlier maturation (assessed at 14 days) in the 4-mm Optiflow group compared with the control group (P = .059). There were no device-related serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Maturation results for both the Optiflow and control groups were highly favorable compared with historical assisted maturation rates of approximately 50%. The Optiflow appears to be safe and effective in the placement of AVFs, with high maturation rates.